klausnick/莫罗佐夫·尼科莱/профан (klausnick) wrote,
klausnick/莫罗佐夫·尼科莱/профан
klausnick

A dangling participle

A dangling participle (also known as an unattached or unrelated participle) occurs when the –ing or –ed phrase is placed next to the subject but is not related to it. It may in fact be related to another noun in the sentence: Being in charge, the accusation was particularly annoying to me (the accusation was not in charge; I was in charge); If paid generously, we can expect good work from them (if they are paid, not if we are paid). Possible corrections of these two sentences are Being in charge, I was  particularly annoyed by the accusation; If they are paid generously, we can expect good work from them. The error requires more radical correction if the participle phrase is not related to any noun in the sentence: By applying the techniques of these massage therapies, the body will be restored to its natural balance (presumably the masseur or masseuse applies the technique).
… Generally, sentences with dangling participles can be easily understood. Nevertheless, they are considered to be incorrect and should be rephrased to avoid criticism.
Certain –ing and –ed phrases are allowed to dangle. In the first place, there are several –ing and –ed words that are no longer participles but have become prepositions: according to, barring, concerning, considering, failing, following, including, owing (to), pending, regarding. Others have become conjunctions: assuming, granted, provided, providing, seeing, supposing.
(Sidney Greenbaum and Janet Whitcut, Guide to English usage. London, 1988).
Tags: английский язык, грамматика
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