a. ch is always hard, as in character.
b. g before e or i is always soft, as in gentle, ginger.
c. e in the last syllable of a word is never mute or silent, but forms a syllable of its own : thus, mares is read ma-res, and mane is read ma-ne.
d. Two or more vowels coming together in the same word are pronounced in separate syllables, except in the case of the diphthongs mentioned in § 7 : thus, meat is read me-at, and boat, bo-at.
e. In words of more than one syllable the accent or stress of the voice is never laid on the last syllable.
Obs. Even ae and oe must be read as two syllables, if the second vowel has this mark ( •• ) called Diaeresis over it: thus, while aetas is read etas, aër must be pronounced a-er.