Детские игры в Древней Греции638. Up to the age of seven years children remained at home under the charge of their mother, or, in well-to-do houses, of a nurse (τροφός ), who was almost invariably a slave. From her lips they would learn stories of the gods and heroes, and fables of animals ; and sometimes tales of ghosts and hobgoblins, such as those which aroused the disapproval of Plato, to scare them into good behaviour. Healthy occupation was found for their restless activity in many kinds of games, most of them such as are still familiar to our nurseries : -- the rattle [НВ1] (πλαταγή or κρόταλον[НВ2] ), an invention of the philosopher Archytas, ' in order that having the use of this, they may not break any of the things in the house, for little creatures cannot keep still ' (Arist. Pol. V. 6. 2), toy carts, boats, beds, tables, cooking utensils, dolls of clay and wax, and dolls' houses. Other recorded games were perhaps better suited to a later age, such as ball-playing (σφαῖρα), the hoop (τροχός[НВ3] ), top[НВ4] (ῥόμβος), and swing (αἰώρα[НВ5] ) ; blind man's buff (χαλκή μυῖα[НВ6] ), the tug of war (ἑλκυστίνδα[НВ7] ), and many others. Especial favourites were knuckle-bones (ἀστράγαλοι[НВ8] ), and jumping or standing on an inflated and well-greased wine-skin (ἀσκωλιασμός[НВ9] ).
[НВ2] a clapper, made of two pieces of split reed, pottery, or metal, joined by a hinge or spring, a sort of Castanet, used in the worship of Cybele, Hom. 13. 3
[НВ3]a boy's hoop, made of iron or copper, with loose rings that jingled as it moved (the Graecus trochus of Horat. Od. 3. 24, 57
[НВ4]юла, волчок (игрушка)
[НВ5]a machine for suspending bodies, a swing, hammock, chariot on springs, Plat. Legg. 789 D, Plut. 2. 793 B, etc.
[НВ6]mosca ceca (Italian)
[НВ8]dice or a game played with dice;
they were at first made of knucklebones (often used by boys in their simple state, as in a Marble in the Brit.Mus.), cf. Lat. tali ; but in time ἀστράγαλοι came to mean dice proper,. The ἀστράγαλοι, however, continued to have only four flat sides, the two others being round. The flat sides were marked with pips ; so that the side with one pip stood opposite to that with six, and that with three to that with four ; the two and five were wanting. Dice marked on all the six sides were called κύβοι. In playing they threw four ἀστράγαλοι out of the palm of the hand or from a box (πύργος). The best throw (βολος), when each die came up differently, was called Ἀφροδίτη, Lat. jactus Veneris, also Μίδας and Ἡρακλῆς ; the worst, when all the dice came up alike, κύον, Lat. canis, caniculia. The locus classicus on the subject is Eust. 1397- 34 sq. There was another game at dice called πενταθλιζειν (q. v.).
[НВ9]ἀσκωλιάζω to hop